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徽州牌坊中许国牌坊为什么是八脚的


发布时间:2014-04-08 14:54:59 阅读:4720

      如同世界上一切事物除了具有普通的形态,也总会有少数与众不同的特殊形态一样,百年来石雕牌坊在发展演变的过程中,在数量繁盛,品种增多的同时,由于种种原因,外观也时有发生变异者。一般的石牌坊都是两柱、四柱、六柱平面‘一”字形的,但是随着牌化的繁荣,徽州牌坊建造的数量越来越多,建造得越来越豪华,牌坊上的雕绘装饰越来越精绚丽。

仿古石牌楼

有些牌坊的建造者不再满足于一般化的两柱、四柱、六柱平面“一”字形造型,他们或出于显示个人身份地位与众不同的需要,为了更好地炫耀标榜自己,以高人一筹,超人一等,或出于建筑技术上的需要,或出于情感寄托上的需要,或出于造型审美上的需要,纷纷石牌楼、牌坊制作形制、造型变化上动脑筋、下工夫,故意别出心裁地把石雕牌楼造得与众不同,从而在石牌坊大家庭中出现了一些标新立异、别有一格、独具特色的变异形态的石牌坊。四柱三间三楼式石雕牌坊,整座牌坊雕刻工艺非常的精细,显示出了我们的雕刻技艺的高超。此类牌坊制作虽为并不算很多,但它们却是牌坊设计文化鼎盛的产物,大大丰富了石雕牌坊百花苑,是牌坊制作百花苑中奇葩,具有独特的迷人魅力,成为石牌坊中不可多得的奇品、珍品。诸如:我国的石雕牌坊,历来者隆两柱、四柱、六柱“一”字形的,但在安徽款县众多石雕牌坊中居众坊首的许国石牌坊却是一座造型奇特的唯一的长方形石牌坊。这座矗立在安徽祁县县城阳和门大街上的巨大的石牌坊,高11.4米,长11.5米,宽6.77米,全部采用坚硬的嘉祥青石制作构件,仿照木结构打眼造桦连接,由前后两座三间四柱三楼和左右两侧单间石柱三楼的石牌坊组合而成,被称为“八脚石牌坊”。

石头门效果图

 其中最重的石料每块达四五吨,在没有现代起重机械的410多年前,居然能将这许多巨石按照木构件形式在高空准确地接合,实在令人叹服。整座石雕牌坊的石柱二上,遍布精美的雕饰,有成双结对的彩凤珍禽和千姿百态的游龙走兽、石雕麒麟等,特别是柱石个的12个石狮子,或相伴而戏,或独卧独坐,神态各异,栩栩如生。石牌楼四面坊额上均有题额和一匾额,最高一层为“恩荣,”二字,底层四面坊,额则刻有刚劲、挥洒自如的“大学士”、“先学后巨”、“上台元老,少保兼太子太保礼部尚书武英殿大学士许国,”等题书,均出自明代大书法家董其昌之手。

徽派牌坊石雕

整座石坊“株接至今毫无错动,坊上雕刻风采依然,足见其建造之精湛,工艺水平之高超。”“许国石牌坊”是我国唯一的八柱长方“型”字形牌坊,是明神宗为表彰大学许国的功绩而恩准建造的牌坊.许国(1527一1577年),字维奄力,号颖阳,安徽祁县人。相传,许国幼时家贫,考取秀才后因生计所迫曾在浸县处馆执教。所授学生纷纷中举,步人仕途。一日,学生相邀款待许国,席间,一少年行志者问许国:‘先生学间如此之高,何不再考,岂能满足于一秀才呢?如同世界上一切事物除了具有普通的形态,也总会有少数与众不同的特殊形态一样,百年来石雕牌坊在发展演变的过程中,在数量繁盛,品种增多的同时,由于种种原因,外观也时有发生变异者。许国默然未答。这时,另一气盛少年说:“只有状元学生,哪有状元先生呢,”许国闻言,拂袖面起,怒道:“古语有云“十年不飞,一飞冲天;十年不鸣,一鸣惊人。”“难道没有听说过吗?”不少学生听了哄然大笑道:“先生如一飞冲天,一鸣惊人,我辈当运石到徽州为先生造一座石牌坊。”许国高声道:‘好,他年定要实践此诺言。”事后,许国闭门谢客,深居苦读,于明世宗嘉靖四十年(1561年)举乡试第一,高中解元,过四年后,又于嘉靖四十四年(1515年)考中第七名进士,隆庆元年〔1567年).授检讨:以后历任三朝,甚有政绩。许国为官清廉,他曾受派遣出使朝鲜,据《欲县志》载,他“馈遗一无所受,朝鲜勒碑以颂”,深受朝鲜朝野的称颂。

石牌坊,石牌楼

此后,他历任礼部左、右侍郎,吏部左、右侍郎。万历十一年(1593年)迸礼部尚书兼东阁大学士,不久,又改授文渊阁大学士,加封太子太保。万历十二年(1534年),许国制定了平息云南上层土司与外国势力相互勾结进行武装叛乱的决策,致使“积年道寇一旦荡罕,去掉了明神宗的一块心病,许国因此而受到一协忠运筹,茂著劳绩、的赞誉,并被封为武英般大学士,晋少保。由于许国有大功于朝廷,且历任嘉靖、隆庆、万历三朝,当过明穆宗和明神宗的老师,因而明神宗对他-加恩眷畔,于万历十二年(1584年)九月恩准他衣锦回乡,在家乡欲县建造石雕牌坊。然而,自古以来按封建礼制规定,所建造的牌坊,或是两脚(两根坊柱),或是四脚(四根坊柱),就连皇帝立牌坊最多也就是六脚(六根坊柱),何以许国会建造了这么一座与众不同超常规的八脚牌坊呢?关于这个间题,祁县的地方文史资料中有两种不同的说法。一种说法是说相传许国获淮回乡建造牌坊后,心想,自已终于有机会实现年轻时立下的竖牌坊的心愿了,但是,徽州牌坊如此之多,建一座四脚牌坊,即使雕得再好也显不出来。他有心想造一座与众不同的八脚牌坊,可是他知道,若无皇上准许,那可是要犯杀头之罪的。

徽州石雕牌坊

于是乎,他想了一个办法,迟迟不离开京城回乡,而是三天两头到皇上面前转悠,皇上每次见到他便问:“爱卿何不赶紧回去营造牌坊?他总是以准备扩建一类的话来搪塞。如此二番,皇上不耐烦了,说:“老爱卿办事从未如此拖沓,如今造牌坊拖这么长时问,不用说四脚牌坊,就是八脚牌坊也造出来了。”许国一听正中下怀,当即眉开眼笑俯身下拜道:“谢主龙恩,就回去了.建造八脚牌坊。,皇上见状,方知上当。但皇帝金口,一言九鼎.许国又是当朝元老,有多功绩,于是皇帝也默许了。另一种说法是说许国获准造牌坊后,不甘心平庸.回乡后就私自扩大规模别出心裁造了一座八脚牌坊,有欺君之罪的。许国因扩造牌坊而拖延了时日,这种未经皇上批准而造八脚牌坊之事是犯法的,回京后便忐忑不安地去叩见皇上,皇上果然龙颜不悦,埋怨道:阁老回乡请假,这么长时间不用说四脚石牌坊,就是一座八脚石牌楼也建好了。许国是用巧妙的办法得到皇上恩准的八柱“方”形牌坊。

 这座四柱三间三楼的枫树村石牌楼是我厂在2011年雕刻的,浮雕图案雕刻精细。

在山西省曲沃县城贡院街中段,矗立着一座明万历四十三年邑人齐济伉因思母而建造、清代以来多次修缮的石牌楼,名叫“大四牌楼”又名望母楼,这座牌楼与“许国石牌坊”一样,也有八根立柱,但造型奇特,其结构与“许国石坊”迥然不同,不是长方“二口”字形,而是亭子形,是一座楼阁与牌楼混合式建筑,坐北朝南.平面旱正方形。之所以称为“四牌楼”,是因其从四面看,都是外观形态一样的牌楼。整座牌楼八柱九楼,十字歇山顶,高约18米,三重檐三层楼身,上下共分3层,一、二层四面均面阔三间,进深三间.四面八方24挑檐.金碧辉煌,52屋脊;吻神兽争奇,绿色琉璃瓦覆顶、雀替、花板上浅浮雕精美石雕貔貅、麒麟图案,边楼在额杨与柱上,出抱厦,使其檐突出阁檐,利用视觉造成-层叠檐的假象。三层檐利用很小空间,设置牛字歇山顶,合理万衡层顶与出檐垂。整座牌楼玲珑剔透,造型独特,雕刻精美,结构严谨,实属中国牌坊中古代建筑造型艺术与雕刻艺术完美结合、二的文物价值和观位于棠椒牌坊群中部,明隆庆间鲍献书偕侄儿鲍元臣建,后屡犯屡修。该亭单槽攒方亭,平面4.44X5.2米,东西通过,亭内南北两侧有石条坐凳,其四柱上有横仿承托天花门额题“琴步事”三个隶书字,传系清代大书法家邓石如手笔,那时,邓石如正在落泊之中,他游览黄山之后,来到祁县,棠椒鲍家有的是钱财,自然留他作客.邓在鲍家留下的手迹很多,鲍氏男祠就有他的亲书鲍氏五伦述,全系五夕司见方的隶体字。“聪步”典出《列异记》:汉代鲍子都好义行,曾在路上收葬一位无名书生,此书生有一聪马〔青白色马)任鲍子驱使。后鲍家子孙都官至司隶《东汉时的“司隶校尉,相当后代的御史》,他们都乘坐这聪马,故京城流传下一首歌谣:“鲍氏聪,三人司隶再入公。马虽瘦,行步工。此亭取名“醚步”,便是启发教育后代人,不要忘记祖上乐善好义的德行,并且要有远大前程的理想。封建时代,文官进村到此要出轿,武官要下马。

Stone arch,

Stone arches, Arch production,

 

 

 

Like all things in the world, in addition to the ordinary form, there will always be a few different special form, like a hundred years to the stone arch in the process of evolution in the number of prosperous, growing varieties, while, for various reasons, the appearance those variations have occurred. The stone arch are generally two columns, four columns, six columns flat 'a' shape, but with the brand of prosperity, an increasing number of arch construction, the construction of increasingly luxurious, carved and painted on the arch more refined decoration brilliant, some of St. Paul no longer satisfied with the construction of generalized two columns, four columns, six columns plane "a"-shaped form, or because they display the distinctive needs of personal status, in order to more good to show off themselves as to jumped to superior adult, or for building technical needs, or the need for emotional sustenance, or the need for aesthetic form, have stone archway, arch shape production, changes in the shape of brains, make an effort, ingenuity put stone archway deliberately made very different, resulting in the stone arch there are some unconventional family, do not have a cell, the unique shape of the stone arch variation. St. Paul made such Although not a lot, but they are a product of the height of the arch design culture has greatly enriched the stone arch Flower Garden, Garden in the arch create one hundred wonderful, unique charm, a stone arch in the rare odd items , treasures. such as: China's stone arch, always by Takashi two columns, four columns, six columns "a" shape, but in the Anhui section County numerous stone arch in the living Public Square the first of many national stone arch is a peculiar shape of the sole rectangular stone arch. Qixian this county stands in the sun and Anhuion the streets of the huge door stone arch, a high 11.4 meters long 11 .. 5 meters wide and 6 meters in '77, all with production of components hard Jiaxiang Qing Shi , punch a hole made along the lines of birch wood connected by three after two left and right sides of a single poster on the third floor and third floor of the stone arch between pillars combination, known as the "eight-foot stone arch." Every one of the heaviest stone block of forty-five t, in the absence of modern lifting 410 years ago, actually put it on a number of rock structures under the form of wood joints accurately at high altitude, it is stunning. the whole of the stone arch on two pillars, beautifully carved all over there in pairs of phoenix mix of rare birds and animals Long, stone unicorn, especially one of the 12 pillars of stone lions, or the attendant drama, lying or sitting alone, look different, life. Shipailou four Square have questions on the amount of plaque volume and a maximum level for "Enrong," the word, the bottom four workshops, the amount is engraved with bold, effortless "scholar", "first post-giant", "stage veteran , less security and Prince Taibao scholar Xu Wu Yingdian rites, "and the book title, are from the Ming Dynasty calligrapher Dong Qichang hand. Shihfang whole," has received no dislocation lines, carved elegance still Square, which shows the construction of the superb craftsmanship of superb. "" Xu stone arch "is the only eight-column rectangular" type "-shaped arch, is that many ShenzongStateUniversityin recognition of achievements and indulgence built arch. Xu (1527 a 1577), the word Om-dimensional force , No. Ying Yang, Anhui Qixian people. According to legend, Xu childhood was poor, after obtaining a result of living force scholar who taught at the BaptistCountyat the museum. The students have been granted in the act, step into the career. day, students from the nearby hospitality Xu, dinner, a boy who asked Xu Zhi-line: 'Mr. so high between school, where no test, how can we be satisfied with a scholar it? Xu silent not answer this time, another arrogant teenager said: " only the champion of students, how can Mr. champion it, "Xu heard, stormed face, the anger and said:" As the old saying goes, "Ten years does not fly, soar; years without Ming, amazed." "Is not heard it ? "Many of the students listened to burst into big smiles:" Sir like a skyrocket, amazed, transported stone to my generation when Mr. Huizhou to build a stone arch. "Xu high channel: 'Well, he was scheduled to practice this promise. "Later, behind closed doors thank-you Xu, secluded and studied at the Ming emperors Jiajing four decades (1561) Provincial Examination held the first high school Jie Yuan, four years after he was Jiajing Forty-four years (1515) comprehensive examinations seventh Scholars, Long Khanh first year [1567). grant review: After the successive dynasties, there is a substantial achievement. Xu Crown clean, his ambassador to the DPRK who have been sent, according to "For County" contains, he "fed suffered nothing left, Le monument to the Korean Song "by the Korean government and the praise, after which he served as rites left, Shilang, left the Ministry of Personnel, Shilang. Wanli eleven years (1593) into the rites of the Eastern Courtscholar, and soon, they change the Wenyuan Pavilion scholar award, sealing Prince CPIC. Wanli years (1534), many States to develop a calm upper toast Yunnan collusion with foreign forces engaged in an armed rebellion in decision-making, resulting in "positive Han Kou Road, once the swing years, removed the piece of heart disease Shenzong Ming, Xu Zhong thus be a co-logistics, Mao with merit, praise, and was labeled as scholar Wu Ying, Jin less security. As many great merit in state court, and served Jiajing, Longqing Wanli dynasties, the Ming had been Mingmu Shenzong and teachers were so out of his Shenzong - grace dependents River, twelve years in Wanli (1584) September indulgence He Yi Jin returned home, built in his home county want to stone arch. However, the ancient feudal rites by the provisions of the construction of the arch, or feet (two Square column) or legs (four Square column), and even the Emperor Li Paifang up is six feet (six Square column), how many Congress a unique construction so extraordinary eight-foot arch it? on this between the title Qixian local historical data, there are two different versions. One theory is that according to legend by Xu Huai return home after the construction of the arch, I thought, finally have the opportunity to achieve their own set of vertical arch of young desire, but, Huizhou arch so much to build a four-legged arch, even if no matter how well nearly as good to carve. He thought made a unique eight-foot arch, but he knows that without the emperor to allow it, but commit the crime of decapitation. Ever since, he thought of a way, the delay in setting off to return home, but every few days wandering around in front of the emperor, the emperor asked every time I see him: "Ai Qing why not hurry back to create the arch? He was always ready to expansion of a class of words to stall. that two barbarians, the emperor impatient, said: "Ai Qing old things have never been so excessively bureaucratic, and now arch made such a long delay when asked, not to mention legs arch, the arch is eight feet are made out the. "Xu a kind of carried, immediately grin bent bowed and said:" Xiezhu Long Well, on the back. Construction of eight foot arch. , Seeing the emperor, we know fooled. But the emperor Chrysostom, authoritative. Xu is when the Korean veteran, a number of achievements, so the emperor acquiesced. Another argument is that many countries allowed to build the arch, the reconciled mediocrity. Returning to scale after secretly built a fantastic eight-foot arch, there Qijunzhizui's. Xu made the arch for expansion of the delay time, the emperor without the approval of this eight-foot arch made of things is against the law, returned to Beijing after an uneasy to Koujian emperor, the emperor really Longyan unhappy, complained: Court old to return home leave, not to mention legs so long stone arch, is an eight-foot stone arch also built. Xu is a clever way to get the emperor graciously grant the eight-column "square"-shaped arch.

    GongyuanStreetQuwoCounty inShanxiProvince, middle, stands a forty-three years of Ming Dynasty (. F6] 5 years) because of Kang Ji Qi Yi people think the mother and the construction, repair several times since the Qing Dynasty stone arch, called the "big four arches "and mother of Fame building, the arch and" Xu Shihfang "as there are eight columns, but the peculiar shape, its structure and" many countries Shihfang "very different, not rectangular" two "shape, but the pavilion-shaped , is a pavilion-style buildings mix with the arch, facing south. dry flat square. It is called "four arches', because of its look from all sides, the arches are the same morphology. The entire ninth floor archway eight columns, cross Shanding, about 18 meters high, three-storeyed building three-body, top to bottom is divided into three layers, one, two sides are Miankuo 3, into the deep three. 24 cornice in all directions. magnificent, 52 roof; kiss strange animal fight, green glazed tile roof cover, QT, exquisite bas-relief carving board took brave, unicorn pattern, while building in the amount of Yang and column, the Baoxia to highlight the Court eaves eaves, use visual result - the illusion of layered canopies. Three eaves use a small space, setting the word Shanding cattle, reasonable Wan Heng top layer and the canopy down. The whole exquisitely carved arches, unique, carved, structured, it is the arch in the ancient Chinese architectural art and sculpture form the perfect combination, two of the heritage value and concept of the central arch group at Tong pepper, Longqing between book-kai nephew Baoyuan Chen Bao Xian construction, repeat offenders after repeated repair. Single save the pavilion side pavilion, flat 4.44X5.2 meters from east to west through, kiosks and south sides of benches of stone, its four-post cross on the door imitation of the amount of questions supporting the ceiling, "piano-step thing." Three official script word , transmission system in the Qing Dynasty calligrapher Deng Shiru mine, then, Deng Shiru is Labo, and that he, after visiting Huangshan, to Qixian, Tang pepper Baojia some money, he naturally stay guests. Baojia Deng left in the handwriting Many, Martin Temple, there's men and his pro-Powell's book described the five relationships, the whole system five evening Division square scribe traditional characters. "Cong step" Code "column Yi Ji": Han Bao Son are well-defined line, closing the road was buried in a nameless scholar, the scholar with a horse [Cong green white horse) any sub-Martin driven. After Baojia Zi Sun Duguan to Sili "Eastern Han Dynasty," Sili Captain, quite offspring Censor, "they are riding this horse Cong, so spread the capital next ballad:" Powell Cong, three Sili re-entry public. Horse, although thin, line-step work. Citing named "ether-step" is inspired by education of future generations, do not forget ancestors Leshan good sense of virtue, and have great expectations of the ideal. Feudal era, the civil service to this village to the car, military attache to dismount

作者:欧阳广彬  @嘉祥县长城石雕厂  本文修订 于  2016-10-23

版权属于:神画石雕有限公司-专业的石牌坊厂家http://www.shidiao136.com/

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